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    1. #1
      Your scary uncle Flashdance's Avatar
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      Wake-up call for teen pot smokers

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      YOUNG adults who used marijuana as teens were more likely than those who didn't to develop schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms, a seven-year Australian study found.

      Those who used the drug for six or more years were twice as likely to develop a psychosis such as schizophrenia or to have delusional disorders than those who never used it.

      Research involving more than 3800 young adults, released online by the Archives of General Psychiatry, found long-term users were also four times more likely to have psychotic-like experiences.

      The findings, by the Queensland Brain Institute at the University of Queensland, build on previous research and shows that marijuana use is not as harmless as some people think, lead study author John McGrath said yesterday in an email.

      The researchers quizzed 3801 young adults who were born in Brisbane between 1981 and 1984. The participants, whose average age was about 20, were asked about marijuana use. The researchers also measured whether those in the study had psychotic symptoms.

      The study was the first to look at sibling pairs to discount genetic or environmental influence and still find marijuana linked to later psychosis, the authors said.

      ''This is the most convincing evidence yet that the earlier you use cannabis, the more likely you are to have symptoms of a psychotic illness,'' said Dr McGrath, a professor at the institute, in a statement. ''The message for teenagers is: if they choose to use cannabis they have to understand there's a risk involved.''

      Researchers were looking for causes of schizophrenia, Dr McGrath said.

      Of the 1272 participants who had never used marijuana, 26 (2 per cent) were diagnosed with psychosis. Of the 322 people who had used marijuana for six or more years, 12 (3.7 per cent) were diagnosed with the illness. Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with psychosis, the study said.

      The researchers also found those who used marijuana the longest were four times more likely than those who didn't to have the highest scores derived from a list of psychotic-like experiences.

      Dr McGrath said even those who used marijuana for fewer than three years still had an increased risk of scoring higher than those who had not.

      ''Apart from the implications for policy makers and health planners, we hope our findings will encourage further clinical and animal-model research to unravel the mechanisms linking cannabis use and psychosis,'' the authors wrote.

      Those in the study were interviewed at the ages of 14 and 21, so the symptoms emerged between those two study periods, Dr McGrath said.

      The study also showed that among 228 sibling pairs, those who didn't use marijuana reported fewer psychotic-like delusions compared with those who used cannabis. That difference was statistically significant and reduces the likelihood that the psychotic problems were caused by genetics or environment, the authors said.

      The study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

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    2. #2
      Pistol Pete CanceledCzech's Avatar
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      Ahaha man, I stumbledupon this a couple hours ago, while I was high as fuck.

      I've been smoking since I was 16 and I'm simple months away from 20 so I guess it's too late for me maaaaaaan.

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    3. #3
      I am become fish pear Abra's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by CanceledCzech View Post
      Ahaha man, I stumbledupon this a couple hours ago, while I was high as fuck.

      I've been smoking since I was 16 and I'm simple months away from 20 so I guess it's too late for me maaaaaaan.
      Human beings are capable of incredible actions
      when they practice mindfulness.
      Abraxas

      Quote Originally Posted by OldSparta
      I murdered someone, there was bloody everywhere. On the walls, on my hands. The air smelled metallic, like iron. My mouth... tasted metallic, like iron. The floor was metallic, probably iron

    4. #4
      Gentlemen. Ladies. slayer's Avatar
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      No wonder my brother is an idiot...

    5. #5
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      ... How do they know which is the cause and which is the effect? I have a friend who gets high ALL THE TIME because he has problems - problems he's had since he was a kid. For him the pot is necessary.. it actually mellows him out enough that he;s not high-strung and depressed all the time. Trust me, you'd much rather hang with him when he's stoned that when he;s not!

    6. #6
      Treebeard! Odd_Nonposter's Avatar
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      ^That's sorta what I've been thinking, but I didn't want to come out and say correlation=/=causation because it would seem as if I'm merely shrugging off their findings because of my bias.

      I wonder what other "trends" they've found (and possibly overlooked or intentionally dismissed) in their data. There is a possibility that there is a third factor that links both trends.They said that they looked at "sibling pairs" in an attempt to reduce environmental and genetic influences. This makes me wonder if birth order was looked at as a factor.

      For example, was the younger of the pair statistically more likely to develop mental disorders in drug-naive pairs? Was the younger sibling also more likely to be a cannabis user in pairs with a user and a nonuser? Or were the same trends noted in the older sibling rather than the younger?

      What they may be finding is that birth order is a factor in determining mental disorders, and that birth order is a factor in determining cannabis use, but that mental disorders and cannabis use have no direct linkage. If birth order was not taken into account, then it may appear as if cannabis use and mental disorders are directly linked.

      I'm a personal example of that. I am a younger sibling, and my older brother has been mentally and emotionally abusive towards me literally since before birth. Because of the damage he inflicted, I may be more inclined to develop mental disorders in the future. Also, because of the hypocrisy I have observed in how my parents have managed my older brother, I may be less inclined to follow their hypocritical morally conservative values and smoke pot.
      In my family, younger siblings are much more likely to have an introvertive personality (likely due to the older siblings' repressive nature.) I have observed this in at least three generations. Because of this personality difference, younger siblings are more likely to be involved in activities that would foster a skeptical worldview, such as doing independent research. A person who does independent research and questions morally conservative values is more likely to find that cannabis use is not as harmful as some activities supported by more morally conservative people, such as alcohol use. I have observed this trend in at least five of my friends' families.



      However, I have not seen their data. If their data shows no correlation between birth order and mental disorders, and no correlation between birth order and cannabis use, then my arguments are invalid.
      Last edited by Odd_Nonposter; 02-28-2010 at 04:33 PM.
      The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The book that everyone needs to read.
      "If the words "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" don't include the right to experiment with your own consciousness, then the Declaration of Independence isn't worth the hemp it was written on."- Terence McKenna

    7. #7
      .. / .- / .- .-. guitarboy's Avatar
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      It's still safer then most of the adverse things we do everyday.

    8. #8
      Xyn
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      This is indeed a amazing discovery... I'm just going to stick with the legal drugs cause they don't KILL people.

      Oh wait...

    9. #9
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      Quote Originally Posted by Flashdance View Post
      YOUNG adults who used marijuana as teens were more likely than those who didn't to develop schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms, a seven-year Australian study found.
      They didn't discover this. This is old news and deals mostly with heavy marijuana use. For the social user, they really don't have to worry about this. It's still by a wide margin the safest drug to use including alcohol.

    10. #10
      Member Indecent Exposure's Avatar
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      I think its safe to view these studies with skepticism.
      Go to 2.28 on this video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-nBfNJCQOUs
      "...You want to reclaim your mind and get it out of the hands of the cultural engineers who want to turn you into a half-baked moron consuming all this trash that's being manufactured out of the bones of a dying world..." - Terence McKenna

      Previously known as imran_p

    11. #11
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      I'm curious what constitutes a "psychotic-like experience." Cannabis users are almost certain to experience some non-consensus views of reality; it's kind of the point of using cannabis
      If you have a sense of caring for others, you will manifest a kind of inner strength in spite of your own difficulties and problems. With this strength, your own problems will seem less significant and bothersome to you. By going beyond your own problems and taking care of others, you gain inner strength, self-confidence, courage, and a greater sense of calm.Dalai Lama



    12. #12
      Dreamah in ReHaB AirRick101's Avatar
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      flashdance, have you ever smoked pot?
      naturals are what we call people who did all the right things accidentally

    13. #13
      Lucid Master of Flight Achievements:
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      i agree, pot can make some people "crazy" but so can marriage..... let's illegalize that

      "MementoMori, the lucid machine"

      "There's nothing better than knowing what it's like to fly like superman. Being fully aware of the air whipping by you, controlling every movement of every single atom in your body with a single thought. It's real freedom, and there's not a word good enough to describe it, so I'll just call it dreamy for now."

    14. #14
      Xei
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      It couldn't be the case then that schizophrenic experiences drive pot use? Or some third factor such as a paranoid personality induces both?

      This isn't very strong evidence for the hypothesis that using pot causes schizophrenia. It's consistent with the data, sure, but not exclusively so.

    15. #15
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      It's hardly beyond imagining that inhaling large quantities of a psychoactive drug during a developmental stage of life could have some impact on psychology and/or brain chemistry. While I'm a fan of psychedelics, pumping yourself full of them when you're 14-15 is retarded.
      If you have a sense of caring for others, you will manifest a kind of inner strength in spite of your own difficulties and problems. With this strength, your own problems will seem less significant and bothersome to you. By going beyond your own problems and taking care of others, you gain inner strength, self-confidence, courage, and a greater sense of calm.Dalai Lama



    16. #16
      Member Indecent Exposure's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by Taosaur View Post
      It's hardly beyond imagining that inhaling large quantities of a psychoactive drug during a developmental stage of life could have some impact on psychology and/or brain chemistry. While I'm a fan of psychedelics, pumping yourself full of them when you're 14-15 is retarded.
      Your right, its not beyond imagining,. but there's nothing to suggest smoking weed causes anybody to develop schizophrenia. I've smoked weed since the age of 14 and I'm pretty sure I'm a sane, aware individual.
      "...You want to reclaim your mind and get it out of the hands of the cultural engineers who want to turn you into a half-baked moron consuming all this trash that's being manufactured out of the bones of a dying world..." - Terence McKenna

      Previously known as imran_p

    17. #17
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      Quote Originally Posted by Taosaur View Post
      It's hardly beyond imagining that inhaling large quantities of a psychoactive drug during a developmental stage of life could have some impact on psychology and/or brain chemistry. While I'm a fan of psychedelics, pumping yourself full of them when you're 14-15 is retarded.
      Yes.

      Took the words right outta my mouth.

    18. #18
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      People who use drugs & alcohol are often using them to self-medicate when they have or are developing a mental illness. I know a girl who crashed hard into drugs, was finally 5150'd (taken to the mental hospital by force) and finally diagnosed with schizophrenia. Once they had her on proper medication, she was able to stay off the drugs and was feeling much better (so far, anyway). In other words, people who develop any psychosis, whether or not it was partially caused by the drug, might keep taking the drug as a way of easing their anxieties, which in turn makes their state of mental health deteriorate even faster. They didn't talk about this behavior in the article but I'm wondering if it was one basis for their study.

      On a sort of related note, people who use certain drugs often have the same hallucinations. For example meth users usually report seeing black helicopters. Schizophrenics often claim to see demons. I've always found that fascinating.

    19. #19
      The Anti-Member spockman's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by imran_p View Post
      Your right, its not beyond imagining,. but there's nothing to suggest smoking weed causes anybody to develop schizophrenia. I've smoked weed since the age of 14 and I'm pretty sure I'm a sane, aware individual.
      That doesn't mean a whole lot, though. If a study showed that 80% of people prefer vanilla ice cream to chocolate, just because I prefer chocolate doesn't mean that I should discount the study. And apparently there is something to 'suggest' that marijuana causes schizophrenia, (even if it doesn't proove it.)
      Paul is Dead




    20. #20
      Consciousness in the Void Universal Mind's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by Naiya View Post
      On a sort of related note, people who use certain drugs often have the same hallucinations. For example meth users usually report seeing black helicopters. Schizophrenics often claim to see demons. I've always found that fascinating.
      That is bizarre. Also, mescaline users commonly report seeing a little elf man hanging out in the background, and DMT users very often report going to a domed room of multiple dimensions and seeing little elf creatures that constantly transform.
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      God cannot destroy himself because He is Omnipotent.


    21. #21
      BICYCLE RIGHTS Catbus's Avatar
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      Off-topic:

      It would be cool to perform an experiment in which people who are under the influence of one of the aforementioned substances were hooked up to an EEG so that the electrical activity in their brain was monitored. From there you could try to pinpoint the general time in which the person experienced this hallucination and compare their brain activity with the other people who's brain activity you've already monitored and look for some type of underlying pattern.

      I'm sure that's much easier said than done, though.


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    22. #22
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      Mary Jane good for you. All these studies are bullshit. It's all a conspiracy. Fuck the government. There is no God.

    23. #23
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      Quote Originally Posted by spockman View Post
      That doesn't mean a whole lot, though. If a study showed that 80% of people prefer vanilla ice cream to chocolate, just because I prefer chocolate doesn't mean that I should discount the study. And apparently there is something to 'suggest' that marijuana causes schizophrenia, (even if it doesn't proove it.)
      To be fair, the article does overstate the case, loading up the front end with talk about how teen tokers are "2x and 4x more likely blah blah blah..." then when they trot out the numbers a few paragraphs down, it's more like, 'While 96.3% of regular cannabis users do not exhibit schizophrenia, cannabis may have contributed to schizophrenia in 1.7% of regular users.'
      If you have a sense of caring for others, you will manifest a kind of inner strength in spite of your own difficulties and problems. With this strength, your own problems will seem less significant and bothersome to you. By going beyond your own problems and taking care of others, you gain inner strength, self-confidence, courage, and a greater sense of calm.Dalai Lama



    24. #24
      The Anti-Member spockman's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by Taosaur View Post
      To be fair, the article does overstate the case, loading up the front end with talk about how teen tokers are "2x and 4x more likely blah blah blah..." then when they trot out the numbers a few paragraphs down, it's more like, 'While 96.3% of regular cannabis users do not exhibit schizophrenia, cannabis may have contributed to schizophrenia in 1.7% of regular users.'
      Ahh. Yeah, Tao, I didn't read it, actually. Just pointing out how personal experience can only do so much to show flaws in most studies.
      Paul is Dead




    25. #25
      .. / .- / .- .-. guitarboy's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by CRAZY BONE View Post
      Mary Jane good for you. All these studies are bullshit. It's all a conspiracy. Fuck the government. There is no God.
      +1 hahaha.
      Plus so many people smoke of course this is going to happen. I can make a study
      "Studies show links between television watching and death, psychosis and rape "
      because it's so popular.

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